Nordic swords, spirals and the Dorian

                                           Two points (taken for true in discussion) :

1.) The  Indogerman- hypothesis  supposes that   northenn  groups of  *Post - 
left the area of the western Baltic Sea by ship since the 4th
.millennium . At
down the Danube, for seafarer a ´comfortable´ neolithic
highway. Within one summer
they could reach the Aegaean Sea
Spirals are widespread sun-symbols in Europe and Near East. May be
showing a cultural link between North and South.

                   a b
                  The * Nordic Circle*

         a.)The older megalith graves (4th  millenium b.)
         Along the westcoast only
isolates. A sandy soil named GEEST,  washed out
         by the melting waters of the last ice age.
         b.) The Bronce  Age  Germanic Giffzungenschwerter
         (Bronze leaf blade sword, ~1200 b.)

   Where did the tin come from ?
Cornwall, Erzgebirge (Germany)
                                There are two larger tin deposits in Europe

1.) In   European  historical  times  well  known  the  deposids  in  Cornwall .
The Phoenician  probably had  knowledge of  these  deposits.

conceivably  an early trade
connection even over sea to  the  Mediterranean

and - not proven -Jutland - Scandinavia.

2.) Tin, copper and iron deposits are known in Central Europe  Erzgebirge
comfortably connected with northern  Europe  by  
ship  down  the  river Elbe.

           Herodot                                           This in mind an amazing report of Herodot 3/115 "
Of the extreme traces  of Europe towards the west  I  cannot  speak with any
 certainty, for  I do  not  allow  that  there  is  any  river to which the babarians
 give  the  name  of Eridanus, emptying  itself  into  the  northern  sea.  where
(as  the tale go) amber is produced, nore do I know of any Islands called  the
Tin Islands, whence the tin comes we use.  For in  the  first  place  the  name
Eridanus  is  manifestly  not  a  barbarian  word  at  all,  but  a  Greek   name,
invented by some poet or  other;  and  secondly  though  I have  taken  great
pains, I  have  never  been  able  to  get an eyewitness  that  there is any sea
on the further side of Europe. Nevertheless tin and amber do certainly come
 to us from the ends oft the earth

Problem:  Vein  deposits,  such  as  those in Bolivia and in Conwall   usually
 occur in granite formations and are recovered by conventional underground
 hardrock mining techniques. Techniques scarcely   practicable in  1600 b.
             Stream Tin  
 More productive are alluvial fields. After weathering of  rocks  containing  tin
 relatively  shallow   deposits  of finegrained  minerals  have   accumulated in
 ancient riverbeds or valleys (Stream Tin )
In modern  times  large proportion of   this ´superficial´  sand-tin  is mined by
gravel pumping. In   this method,  the  barren  overburden has been removed,
often by draglines or shovels and high pressure water jets are used to break
up and dislodge the tin-bearing sand.

In 1241/42 on the metal market in Cologne continental tin appeared as com-
petition to English tin. From 1324  the  term *cynsifen* . (tin soap)  is  known
Starting from approximately 1560 also hard rock minimg is proven.

"Hard-rock mining  began in  Cornwall  during the course of century
A.C.The english mine owners brought in German miners, the acknowledged
masters  of  this  type  of  mining.  Concession   were granted to the German
miners, for they alone had the necessary experience and  technology" (Muhly)
1988    2.500 t  Erzgebirge tin was produced.  (1.2% of the world production)
1988    Cornwall became uneconomic and closed,
1991    the ´Erzgebirge´ followed.


The development of stream  deposited  sediments  of tin-sand  needed geo-
logical time intervals.Thus if in historical times tinsand in the Erzgebirge  has

been mined  then tin-sand  must  have  been  in  existence even  in the  older

Bronze Age

1.) To get tin all a ´neolithic´ prospector needed was a shovel
2.) For  Northerners   tin  deposits in  the  Erzgebirge were easily to reach by
ship down
the river Elbe/Saale.

Facit: Who searched  for copper in the Erzgebirge can´t hardly have overlook
the  tinsand. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Nordic  Bronce Swords                                

                                         Nordic Vollgriffschwerter (full handle swords ) of the older Bronce Age( Peroid II) (1400 b.)                                                                                                                                                             Ottenjann   



                                                530 of such  hilts are proven in the area of the western BalticSea.

The handle is  connected  by rivets  to  the  sword   blade.This riveting is short ,
is mechanically less resistant. Thus  swords presumably a  status  symbol, not
for fighting.
At  the  beginning  of  the  warlike  Urnenfelderzeit (Urnfield, 1200 b.) replaced
by  the Griffzungenschwert  (tang sword) (see below)

                                                                                 Nebra     ~1600 b.   

Problem 1 :

"The Early Bronze Age full-handle swords  in the Baltic region  become known
only from hoards. The majority of fullhandle swords dates from late Bronze Age
tombs. The  reason  for  the  sudden  increase in the amount of discovery in the
earlier Bronze Time could be trade in  different  ways  but the real cause lies in
this case in the rise of a separate northern sword-produktion

"All Nordic  bronze swords with hollow bronze handles were cast in a so-called
                                                    lost wax process

                                                  starting with high tech ?


Problem 2     



                The typs of  Vollgriffschwerter of the Early Bronze Age

                             Stonehenge II ..... 1700 - 1600 BC
                             Stonehenge III .....1500 - 1400 BC
       Professor Atkinson's dates are described as "very approximate." -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                       Problem 3
of such  hilts are proven in the area of the western Baltic
                                                 A worldwide singular accumulation of swords  allmost all decorated with spirals

   The pommel plates and hilts of older Nordic swords show  almost invariably
                                    spirals and ´Würfelaugen( cubes eyes) - 

Problem 4

The swords do not show traces of  fighting  along  the  sword´s edge  but  more
superficial  ornaments  on  the  grip  got  so  much  worn  that  often  the original
ornament was lost. (Ottenjann)

Northern full handle swords not for fighting but primarily a status symbol ?                   

             The isolated North at this time a relatively peacefull area ?  

              The > genetically<   isolated  North  a  peacefull  long *Urheimat*  
                                  of Post - Magdalénian  reindeer hunter ?

     Problem: Genetically  decendentsof the kater warelike  Viking ?)  blond, lactase


       Sounds strange, but  Homer may in part support this ´isolated´ view.

is beached in a  storm  on  the coast   of  the  Pheaaken. (Spanuth
relates the Pheaaken with Atlantis) Here washing maids of princess Nausicaa
 found  him.
 They  runaway  screaming. ( Odysseus  was sparsely dressed.) 
                                        Nausikaa called them back..

Stand, my maidens. Whither do ye flee  at  the  sight of a man?  Ye do not think,
surely, that he is an enemy ? That mortal  man  lives not, or exists nor shall ever
be born who shall come to the land  of  the  Phaeacians  as foeman, for we are
very  dear to the immortals
Far off we dwell in the surging sea, the furthermost of men, and no other mortals have dealings with us..”Odyss. Nausikaa
Od.6/200,279 ff Voss

               Herodot 4/13  may support  this quite and peacefull view.
these  the  Hyperborean bordering the sea. All  of these  -  except the                                            Hyperboreen -  always fought their neighbour.
                              The Hyperboreaan are related to Stonehenge

-------    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

In   early  times a relatively  thinly  settled  area  with no  population pressure and
being geographically  isolated  in  north-west  and  east  by  open  seas with  no  neighbours to wage a fight  .

 Problem:      For young men - descendents of reindeer hunters-  a peacefull and
                          thus a long time with no resorces against boredom

Tacitus (3) * there is nothing at all within  the national  or  personal  range,  which
they would carry  out  without  armament.
-- 22)   then  they  go  to  their  business,
less  often  also  to drinking-bouts, in weapons "

   A community formed by a millennia-old  culture of hunters but  not of farmers ?
          Joung men
grown up with  a sword in hand being only
a status symbol.

                              Their outlook on live : No fight  but milking cows                                                      
                                                          Their dream
              within one summer down the Danube to the Mediteranian.(Troi - Karatepe?)
                                                             and then

                                     A fight I stand, which I do not know, 
                                         A way I go, which I do not know."

    A name, which lasts, I want to set


                   Admit may sound a little bit strange, but in the isölated North
 no neighbours, no fighting, no people to subdue, no taxes , no pyramids only primeval hills


>>Grip tongue sword<<
Problem:The  older´ Vollgriffschwerter (full handle) had suffered   from the fact        
that  in most  cases the blade  was  made  separately  from
the hilt, i.e. it had
to be attached to blade with rivets.This caused a
problem if the weapon was
used to cut  or parry a blow

The joint between blade and hilt  had to withstand tensile loads in fight which
could  break the rivets and / or their  mounting  holes.
 No  problen  in peace- times
,  if a sword mainly being a status symbol.
In 1200 -700 b. with the beginning of the violent  Eurpean Urnfield  wartimes,
swords were needed for fighting.

The entire weapon was made in a single bronze casting which incorporated
raised flanges  into  the  edges of  the  'tongue' in  order to  accept  grips   of
wood or bone.This innovation made possible the development of the world's
first truly efficient cut-and-thrust sword


1: Hojlandsvandet, Denmark; 2: Ruegen, Germany; 3: Mycenae,
4: Egypt; 5: San Benedetto in Perillis, Italy; 
6: Annenheim, Carinthia, Austria; 7: Leoben, Steiermark, Austria
8: Fucino, Italy; 9: Fucino, Italy; 10: San Benedetto in Perillis, Italy

                 Griffzungenschwerter                    Mykene                                 Nordfunde                   Bronze age waepons                                                                                                                                                                                                       Rumania

                   Mykene  1 Mouliana (Kreta)  2 Metaxata Kephallenia  3 Diktäische
                   Grotte,  4 Mykene,  5 Delphi,  6 Olympia, 7 Diakata Kephallenia,
                   8 Jalysos, 9 Diktäische  Grotte
                 ( Funde aus der Katastrophenzeit der mykenischen Kultur. Milojocic)  zit. Spanuth  
Nordfunde 1 Boslunde, Dänemark  2 Seelwig, Krs.Dannenberg 
                  3 Wehdel, 4 Hoilandsvandet,Dänemark  5 Frankfurt/Oder  6 Ülzen
                  7 Friedeberger Hütte,  8 Slate,Krs. Parchim  9 Dobbin Krs. Güstrow
                                              ( Nordische Bronzezeit und frühes Griechentum Sprockhoff,1954  ) 

Interestingly, one of  the earliest  datable   specimens  of the
NaueType found in the Mediterranean region is an Egyptian
sword  inscribed  for SetiII (ca. 1202- 1196 b.)

In his study of warfare at  the end of  the Bronze Age, Robert
Drews tallied up the following  counts for finds  of the  bronze NaueType

                                   Cyprus  9     Near East   29   Greece  29
                                     Italy 100     Yugoslavia 130          enlarge

                                      The way   Northerners  invading European  South ?    

        Finds of iron
      (1300 - 800. B.C)

The  unique  concentration  of  bronze  swords  of  the  older (~1500 b.)  and
      middle Bronce
Age may point  precariously to a northern technical                                                                         ´leading´position.
                                       A hypothesis supported by

                      1.) early iron finds in Northern Europe and

                   2.) the Dorian using iron slashing swords c.1200 b.

As  in  the  Bronze  Age  the  Erzgebirge  again  offered  the  raw material. In 

historical  time  the  iron  production  in   the  Erzgebirge  had  an economcal significance.

                a b c
a.)  Early  finds of iron  and the  supposed  propagation of the knowledge  in
the processing of iron. Assumed origin and propagation from the Near East
to the North.
(see direction of arrow - (click))
Finds of iron (13.-8.century b.) in the area of the western BalticSea.
c.) spreading of iron swords of the Typ 'Mindelheim'.( Wilms) ),


Problem: Why this amassment of iron in the area of the Nordic circle'?

Iron swords could have been a logical consequence of processing bronze
Logically because a prospector looking for tin in the Erzgebirge can´t
scarcely overlook the Braun-eisen-stein (´brown  iron stone) laying more or
 less on the earth surface.

The Bronze Age prospectors knew the technique of founding copper .If so,
why not thinking about making comparable experiments with Brauneisen-
stein ?

The  supposed  origin of iron  technology in the Near East may  appeare pre-
carious, but  around 1100 b.´ foreigners´ with  iron weapons invaded Greece

         The Dorian                                                      The Dorian   used iron slashing swords.

" Around  1100  BC.the Dorian appear in Greece. An  actual fact, the origins
of  the Dorians   are necessarily obscure, but  it  appears  they  originated  in
northern and northwestern Greece, i.e., Macedonia  and Epirus 
there they  apparently  swept  southward  into central  Greece and then
the  southern Aegean  area  in  successive  migrations  beginning  about
BC, at  the end of the Bronze Age.

The invading Dorians  had a relatively low  cultural level,  and their only  major  technological innovation  was  the iron slashings  sword. The  Dorians  swept
away   the   last  of   the  declining 
Mycenaean   and  Minoan  civilizations  of
southern Greece and plunged  
the  region  into  a  darkage out  of  which  the
Greek city-states began to
emerge almost  three centures later."
Encyclo. Britannica

Where did the Dorian learned the processing of iron ? In Macedonia ?

Jerm.15,12 f.
  Shall iron break the northern iron and the steel?



        At  the  same  time  around 1200 b.. the  Sea People  appear in the
ranean  attacking  Ramses III  with  typical northern   longships


                                        Seapeople  1200 b.                                       Phonicians 700 b.

Around  700 b. longships are proven used by Phonicians. In form looking like
Viking ships (Khorsabad, Sargon II)

Facit:  If  the  Dorian  with  iron  slashing swords actually came from  the north
(part of them by ship?
), then  a  processing of iron may had been  developed
in  the North  already
in  the outgoing northern Bronze Age. (c.1400 b.)

          Crete / Mycenae

                       Spirals widespread in Crete and Mycenae

"The Pre-Palace period which followed (2600-2000 BC)  was characterized
 by cultural changes, evidently due to the arrival on the island of new
 who brought with them a knowledge of bronzeworking" (Sakellarakis)


                                                    Ceramics with spirals  found in the Old Palace Period (2000-1700 BC)  

   Crete1450-1300 b.  ".a gold hilt decorated with a network of spirals"

                                                                     Mycenae  (15.Jh b.)

"fine  driven golden plates enclose  the hilt of this bronze  sword from the
The hilt is 25 cm long and so far the largest,  ever  found  in a
 Mycenaean grave. It
was  discovered in  a  prince  grave  on  the  island
(Casson) (my trans.)

 Spirals  on   the  hilt  of   Nordic ´full hand´ swords in the midst of  the 2th
 millennia. c.1400 b.  Compareable swords,.in
Mycenea  Crete c.1500 b.

     Problem :
Transfer of knowledge: Söuth to North  or North to South ?

Almgren,O.        Nagrasvensk-finska stenalders problem  In Antikvarsisk tidskrift
                           för Serverge
Broholm, C.       Anthropomorphic Bronze Age Figures in Denmark. Acta
                          Archaeologica 18,1947

Casson, L.          Die Griechischen Eroberer 1981
Cowen, J.G        in  Struve, K.W. Geschichte Schleswig-Holstein Bronzezeit                     
                          Periode I bis III, 1971.
 Taf.32 Verbreitung mitteleuropäischer
                          Schwerter vom Nenzingertyp (gemeines Griffzungenschwert)
                          nach  J.G Cowen,  H. Müller-Karpe und E Sprockhoff.

Drews, R.          The End of the Bronze Age 1999

                                Summary by Michael McGoodwin, prepared 1999

Georgien .        Schaetze aus dem Land des Goldenen Vlies, Bochum 2001
Ottenjann,H.     Die nordischen Griffzungenschwerter der aelteren und

                         Bronzezeit Rom. Germ. Kommission, Bd. 30,1969

Muhly,J.D.        Sources of Tin and the Beginnings of Bronze Metallurgy

                        American Journal of Archaeology 89, 1985

Rieckhoff,S+ Biel,J       Die Kelten in Deutschland 2001

Sakellarakis,   J.A. Herakleion Museum 1983

Spanuth J.       Die Atlanter 1976

Sprockhoff,E.   Die germanische Griffzungenschwerter, 1931

Willms, C.        Keltenfürst aus Frankfurt: Macht und Totenkult um  700 v.Chr.

                         Beitrag von  Nils-Jörn Rehbach, 2002

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